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Tax Tip of the Week | No. 447 | New Tax Law (TCJA) – Rules Significantly Eased for Code Section 168 & 179 February 14, 2018

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : Deductions, General, tax changes, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Feb 14, 2018 | No. 447 | New Tax Law (TCJA) – Rules Significantly Eased for Code Section 168 & 179

Good news for business owners!

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) has very favorably changed the tax rules for “accelerated” tax depreciation expense under IRC Sections 168 and 179.

Prior Law:  Section 168 (bonus depreciation) – taxpayers were allowed to deduct 50% of the cost of most new tangible property other than buildings (with a few exceptions). This “50% bonus depreciation” was scheduled to be reduced to 40% for property placed in service in calendar year 2018, 40% in 2019 and 0% in 2020 and thereafter.

New Law:  For property placed in service and acquired after Sept. 27, 2017, the TCJA has raised the 50% rate to 100%.

Also, perhaps, even more importantly, under the TCJA the post-Sept. 27, 2017 property eligible for bonus depreciation may be new or used.

Prior Law:  Section 179 expensing – taxpayers could elect to deduct the entire cost of Section 179 property up to an annual limit of $510,000. For qualifying assets placed in service in tax years that begin in 2018, the adjusted limit was $520,000. This annual limit was reduced by one dollar for every dollar that the cost of all Section 179 property placed in service during the tax year exceeded a $2,030,000 threshold. For those assets placed in service in tax years that begin in 2018, the threshold was to be $2,070,000.

New Law:  The TCJA ratcheted up the annual dollar limit for expensing to $1 million and $2,500,000 as the new phase down threshold.

The new definition of qualifying property has been expanded for both Sections 168 and 179. More favorable depreciation lives were also made available, meaning faster tax write-offs.

Vehicles.  The TCJA triples the annual dollar caps on depreciation (and the Code Sec. 179 vehicle expensing) of passenger automobiles and small vans and trucks. Also, because of the extension in bonus depreciation, the increase for vehicles allowed bonus depreciation of $8,000 in the other-wise-applicable first year cap is extended through 2026 (with no phase-down).

Farm property.  More good news!  For items placed in service after 2017, the TCJA reduces the depreciation period for most farm equipment from seven years to five. It also allows many types of farm property to be depreciated under the 200% (instead of 150%) declining balance method.

Thank you for all of your questions, comments and suggestions for future topics. We may be reached in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

This week’s author – Mark Bradstreet, CPA

–until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 445 | Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – Estate and Gift Tax Changes January 31, 2018

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : General, tax changes, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Jan 31, 2018 | No. 445 | Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – Estate and Gift Tax Changes

Congress debated at length as to whether the estate and gift taxes would survive. And, if they did – what new look might they have. In the final version of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act as signed into law by the President on December 22, 2017, the estate and gift taxes did survive but with significant increases to their exclusion amounts.

Pre-act law – The lifetime estate exclusion amount was originally $5,000,000 and adjusted for inflation after the year 2011. This exclusion amount was $5,490,000 for the 2017 year and scheduled to be $5,600,000 for 2018 or $11,200,000 for a married couple if portability was elected. The annual gifting exclusion is $14,000 for 2017. This exclusion is adjusted for inflation but our low inflation rates and the fact that it is adjusted only in increments of $1,000 has left it unchanged since 2013.

New law – After December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 (a sunset provision), the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act has effectively doubled the previous lifetime exclusion amount. The new amount is expected to be about $11,200,000 in 2018 or $22,400,000 for a married couple.

Note: Although the Act is silent on generation skipping transfers one may expect to see an increased exclusion amount here as well.

The annual gifting exclusion is now $15,000 for gifts made in 2018. This change from $14,000 to $15,000 is not a result of the new tax law but a result of inflation adjustments.

We enjoy your questions, comments and suggestions for future topics. You may contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

This week’s author – Mark Bradstreet, CPA

–until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 444 | New Tax Law – 20% Pass-through Business Deduction January 24, 2018

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : Deductions, General, tax changes, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Jan 24, 2018 | No. 444 | New Tax Law – 20% Pass-through Business Deduction

For tax years beginning in 2018 and before 2026, the new 20% deduction is generally allowed by individuals, estates and trusts that have interests in pass-through business entities. These entities are sole proprietorships, partnerships, S corporations and limited liability companies (LLCs) and their income passes through and is taxed by another entity (generally taxed on your personal income tax return – Form 1040). This deduction will typically equal 20% of the qualified business income (QBI) provided personal taxable income is less than a threshold of $157,500 or, if married filing jointly, $315,000. Further limitations apply provided personal taxable income is in excess of these thresholds. Please note the QBI deduction isn’t allowed in calculating adjusted gross income (AGI), but it does reduce your overall taxable income. For all intents and purposes, QBI is treated as an itemized deduction.

QBI is income, gains, deductions and losses that are connected with a U.S. business. Some investment items, reasonable compensation to an owner or any guaranteed payments to a partner or LLC member are not considered QBI.

Limitations

For pass-through entities aside from sole proprietorships that exceed the above thresholds, the QBI deduction generally can’t exceed the greater of the owner’s share of:

•    50% of W-2 wages paid to employees by the qualified business during the tax year; or
•    The sum of 25% of W-2 wages plus 2.5% of the cost of qualified property.

Qualified property is the depreciable tangible property (including real estate) owned as of year-end and used by the business during the year for the production of qualified business income.

Another limitation is that the QBI deduction usually isn’t applicable for income from certain service businesses. These include businesses that involve investment-type services and most professional practices (exceptions are engineering and architecture).

Please note that other rules and limitations are applicable to the QBI deduction.

These rules are complex and will require careful planning to optimize any benefits.

We enjoy your questions, comments and suggestions for future topics. You may contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

This week’s author – Mark Bradstreet, CPA

–until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 443 | New Tax Law Changes – Businesses January 17, 2018

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : Deductions, General, tax changes, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , 1 comment so far

Tax Tip of the Week | Jan 17, 2018 | No. 443 | New Tax Law Changes – Businesses

A short recap of the new tax law changes that most commonly affect many businesses (for 2018) follows:

1)    C Corporations are now taxed at a flat rate of 21%.  No more brackets based on taxable income.
2)    Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is now history.
3)    New 20% deduction of qualified business income for pass-through businesses (this calculation is complex and far-reaching).
4)    Excess business losses are limited (aside from a corporation).
5)    Cash basis method of accounting has been extended to taxpayers with less than $25 million in average gross receipts. A change in accounting for inventory has also occurred.
6)    Completed contract method of accounting has been extended to businesses under $25 million in gross receipts.
7)    Like-kind exchanges are no longer allowed for any transactions aside from real property.  Ouch!!!
8)    Deductions for entertainment are gone.
9)    Depreciation amounts for luxury vehicles have increased.
10)  Businesses with sales in excess of $25 million will now have limited interest expense deductions. Excess may be carried forward.
11)  Section 179 expensing up from $510,000 to $1,000,000; but, phase out begins at $2,500,000.
12)  Definition of Section 179 property has been expanded. That is a good thing.
13)  Section 168 bonus property no longer has to be new property. The 50% has been increased to 100% on property placed in service after 9/27/17.
14)  Net operating losses (NOLs) can no longer be carried back (other than two years allowed for farming operations). They may now be carried forward indefinitely and are subject to an 80% income limitation.
15)  Domestic Production Activity Deduction (DPAD) is no longer allowed. Many businesses will be adversely affected by the loss of this provision.

We enjoy your questions, comments and suggestions for future topics. You may contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504.  Or visit our website.

This week’s author – Mark Bradstreet, CPA

–until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 442 | New Tax Law Changes – Individuals January 10, 2018

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : Deductions, General, tax changes, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Jan 10, 2018 | No. 442 | New Tax Law Changes – Individuals

We have attempted to recap some of the tax law changes that affect many individuals as below:

1)   We still have the seven–bracket individual tax structure but now with mostly lower tax rates.
2)    The marriage tax penalty has been effectively eliminated for all except for married couples with taxable income north of $400,000.
3)    Although, the higher standard deduction was billed as a tax cut, it really falls more into the realm of tax simplification. However, one must keep in mind that the personal exemption deduction was eliminated. So, for most people, what the government gives with one hand, they taketh away with the other.
4)    If your children are 17 or older or you take care of elderly relatives, you can claim a nonrefundable $500 credit, subject to income thresholds.
5)    Funds saved in a 529 savings plan may now be used for private school and tutoring (K – 12).
6)    Income thresholds for capital gains no longer match the tax brackets as before.
7)    People who don’t buy health insurance will no longer pay a tax penalty (effective in 2019).
8)    The net investment income tax of 3.8% remains the same.
9)    Interest on home equity debt may no longer be deducted.
10)  The Child and Dependent Care Credit remains in place.
11)  Some charitable donations may now be deducted up to 60% of income (up from 50%).
12)  Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is now adjusted for inflation and the AMT exemption amounts have increased.  Both are good.
13)  Estate tax exemption has effectively doubled to $11.2 million lifetime exclusion.
14)  Deductions that didn’t survive:
A.    Casualty and theft losses (other than a federally declared disaster).
B.    Unreimbursed employee expenses.
C.    Tax preparation expenses (still okay for businesses, rentals, and various investments, etc.).
D.    Moving expenses.

We enjoy your questions, comments and suggestions for future topics. You may contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

This week’s author – Mark Bradstreet, CPA

–until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 438 | Planning For The New Proposed Tax Bill December 14, 2017

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Tax Tip of the Week | Dec 14, 2017 | No. 438 | Planning For The New Proposed Tax Bill

2017 is coming to a close with sweeping new tax legislation on the horizon. While the changes don’t take effect until 2018. We want to alert you to some steps you might take before year-end to preserve the best possible tax results.

As you explore these ideas, mostly you will find they contain a common and time-tested theme: where possible, defer income and accelerate the payment of deductible expenses. The reason for relying on this oldest of strategies is because ordinary income tax rates should be lower next year and many expenses will either no longer be deductible or will be less valuable in light of higher standard deductions in 2018.

1.    Maximize retirement deferrals. Be sure to fully fund your 401(k) and/or IRA to further reduce gross income for 2017. We can further discuss during the tax season fully funding 2017 SEPs and other retirement accounts that can be funded up to April 15 (or later).
2.    Business owners and consultants should delay billing. It isn’t proper to simply delay depositing checks received before year-end, but you generally won’t be paid for amounts you haven’t billed. Shift that mid- to late-December billing out until January 1 (for cash basis taxpayers).
3.    Prepay state income tax. This deduction may be eliminated beginning in 2018, so pay the fourth quarter estimate that is dated January 2018 by December 31, 2017. This strategy, however, requires that you know your status regarding alternative minimum tax (AMT). If you will be subject to AMT in 2017, it is likely that prepaying your state taxes will not reduce your 2017 taxes. In that case, with no benefit in either year, it makes better financial sense to make the payment later.
4.    Prepay property taxes. The deduction for property taxes is likely to be limited to $10,000 beginning in 2018. To the extent that you already have an assessment that isn’t due until after the first of next year, pay it by December 31. For taxpayers with high property tax bills and other large deductions such as mortgage interest and contributions, accelerating the 2018 property tax payment into 2017 may save a deduction due to disappear next year. Mid-range taxpayers may need a projection to see if this makes sense. And here again, the strategy won’t work for those in AMT in 2017.
5.    Bunching strategies. With the standard deductions possibly doubling in 2018, lower itemizers will need to begin to incorporate strategies to bunch deductible expenses every other year to “pop up” over the standard deduction and preserve tax benefits. In this case, you might warn your favorite charities as you contribute this year-end that your next contribution might not occur until January 2019. In that way, you can make double contributions at the beginning and end of 2019 to achieve deductions above the standard deduction that year.
6.    Make donations directly from IRA. If you are 70½ or older but your donations do not bring you over the new higher standard deduction, make those donations directly from your IRA as a custodial transfer.
7.    Delay business asset acquisition. First-year bonus depreciation for brand new assets may be 100% in 2018 (up from 50% in 2017). You may want to delay capital expenditures to take advantage of the more complete write-off on the acquisition.
8.    Complete trade-ins of business equipment, machinery, and autos before year-end. Section 1031 like-kind exchanges will only be available on real property beginning in 2018. If you have other business assets with low or no basis that you were considering trading in on the purchase of new, complete the transaction and place the new assets in service before year-end if possible.
9.    Complete large capital gains sales and prepay the state tax. You may want to accelerate this type of income into 2017 as long as it is accompanied by the payment of state tax. With capital gains rates remaining virtually the same under the new law, the net after-tax result can be better this year.

Individual situations are unique, and there are no one-size-fits-all tax planning strategies. If you would like to discuss these or other ideas that apply to your particular circumstances, please feel free to contact us.

With respect and encouragement,

The Staff at Bradstreet, CPAs

You can contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

…until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 433 | Municipal Net Profit Tax Return November 15, 2017

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : General, tax changes, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes, Uncategorized , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Nov 15, 2017 | No. 433 | Municipal Net Profit Tax Return

There are over 600 Ohio cities and villages that levy a municipal income tax. These taxes are administered by the  individual municipalities or by third party administrators. Business taxpayers are required to file and pay tax in every municipality where income is earned. The new plan is for the state to administer the business net profit tax. Note, this would not include sole proprietors and single member LLCs. This could be a savings of $800 million to municipalities and businesses if all businesses file centrally.

According to the Tax Reform Plan, the business taxpayer will have the choice to file and have the net profit tax administered by multiple individual municipalities or to file with Ohio Department of Taxation. This is an ‘Opt-in’ choice and is not mandatory.

Advantages for ODT will be one uniform tax return and one consistent governing body which will allow filing multiple municipalities to one central location. ODT will provide taxpayer information to the municipalities.

ODT Role:
Propose rules
Prescribe forms
Issue bills, assessments, refunds
Conduct audits, certify debts
Handle appeals & other administrative matters

Municipality Role:
Retain responsibility for Employee Withholding & Individual filings
Retain control over tax rate and tax credits

Business taxpayers who want the cost savings of reporting and filing municipal tax are urged by the Ohio Tax Commissioner to sign up for a major new and convenient tax filing service. Businesses wanting to ‘opt-in’ for the centralized filing and state administration of the municipal net profit tax for the 2018 tax year can register now at the Department of Taxation’s website (www.tax.ohio.gov). Business taxpayers need to register specifically for the municipal net profit tax to take advantage of this new one-stop, cost-saving system, even if registered with the state to pay other taxes.

Municipal Net Profit Tax Reform Timeline:
By March 1, 2018 – business (calendar year filers) registers through OBG
By April 15, 2018 – business makes first quarterly estimated payment
By April 15, 2019 – business files Tax Year 2018 tax return

You can contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

…until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 430 | FINALLY! Penalty Relief for Delinquent Partnership Returns October 25, 2017

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : General, tax changes, Tax Deadlines, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Tip, Taxes , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Oct 25, 2017 | No. 430 | FINALLY! Penalty Relief for Delinquent Partnership Returns

In case you are unaware, some Internal Revenue Service filing due dates have changed. These new deadlines which began with the 2016 tax year for returns filed in 2017 included the Form 1065, U.S. Return of Partnership Income. The original due date for calendar-year partnerships was April 15th, the same as your personal income tax return. The new due date for calendar-year partnerships is March 15th.

S corporations have always been due March 15th. Partnerships and S corporations are known as “pass-through entities” because all items of income and expense get “passed through” and are reported on the owners’ personal income tax returns. Partnerships and S corporations generate a K-1 for each partner, shareholder or member. The K-1 provides information necessary for preparation of the owner’s personal return.

By moving the due date of partnerships up to March 15th, the IRS hopes more returns can be filed by April 15th, rather than having to file extensions due to late K-1’s. Or, to say it another way, the Internal Revenue Service hopes to get your tax money faster by taxpayers filing earlier.

However, many partnerships did not meet the new, earlier filing deadline and either filed their returns and/or their extensions late. If you are an owner of a partnership that has received a penalty notice for late filing, we may have some good news. If certain conditions are met, the Internal Revenue Service may provide you relief from the penalties normally assessed when filing a delinquent return. These types of penalties for partnerships may be quite significant since they are assessed on a per partner, per month basis. So, if you have one of these types of notices, let us know. We can help.

Sometimes we have to be thankful for the small things in life.

This week’s author….Mark Bradstreet, CPA

You can contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

Rick Prewitt – the guy behind TTW

…until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 429 | Cash Method vs. Accrual Method of Accounting (Generally Speaking) October 18, 2017

Posted by bradstreetblogger in : Deductions, General, tax changes, Tax Planning Tips, Tax Preparation, Tax Tip, Taxes , add a comment

Tax Tip of the Week | Oct 18, 2017 | No. 429 | Cash Method vs. Accrual Method of Accounting (Generally Speaking)

Many taxpayers are unaware of the method of accounting used for their business income tax returns. And, many businesses are unaware that a different accounting method may also be used for their financial statements. Yes, effectively, creating two sets of books.

Typically, the two most common accounting method choices are the cash method and the accrual method.

Use of the cash basis method of accounting (if eligible) will usually result in lower income taxes than the accrual method for a particular period of time. This is especially true when a business is growing.  However, if a business is experiencing a decline in revenues, additional taxes may be incurred as a result of reporting on the cash basis.

On the other hand, accrual basis accounting will often show the largest bottom line on your financial statements. This may be important when reporting your financial results to your bank and/or your bonding company. Both always enjoy seeing good news.

Thusly, these two methods may show significantly different results even, when accounting for essentially the same transactions. One may wonder how that could be. Well, the cash basis reports only taxable income when it is received in cash. Also, under this method, a tax deduction does not occur unless a cash disbursement for an expense has occurred.  The accrual method shows the income once the sale is completed and the expense when incurred which can more accurately reflect your net income.

The choice of an accounting method is a big one.  Its importance grows with the size of your business.  If you ever decide to change methods, please remember that some changes require Internal Revenue Service approval, while others are automatic. Regardless, your accounting method choice should be evaluated on an annual basis.

This week’s author….Mark Bradstreet, CPA

You can contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

Rick Prewitt – the guy behind TTW

…until next week.

Tax Tip of the Week | No. 427 | Top 10 Things to Know About Amending Returns October 4, 2017

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Tax Tip of the Week | Oct 4, 2017 | No. 427 | Top 10 Things to Know About Amending Returns

If you need to make a change or correct your federal tax return after it has been filed you will use Form 1040X. Here are the top 10 things you need to know when filing a 1040X:

1.    To file a 1040X, it must be mailed—you cannot e-file an amended return.

2.    You normally don’t need to file an amended return to correct math errors.  The IRS will automatically correct math errors and send you a bill or refund.

3.    You can track the status of the 1040X three weeks after filing.  To track the status, go to www.irs.gov and click on the “Where’s My Amended Return” link.  Note:  it can take up to 12 weeks for the IRS to process an amended return.

4.     If a refund is due from the original return, wait until you receive the refund before filing the 1040X to claim additional refund amounts.

5.     If more tax is due, file a 1040X and pay the tax as soon as possible to reduce any interest and penalties.

6.     You usually have three years to file an amended return.  See the 1040X instructions for the exact details.

7.      If you are amending more than one tax year, prepare a 1040X for each year and mail them in separate envelopes.

8.      If you use other IRS forms or schedules to make changes, attach those forms to the submitted 1040X.

9.     The most important section on the 1040X form is the “Explanation of Changes”.  You need to clearly and precisely explain why you are submitting an amended return and what changes you are making.

10.    If the changes you make on the federal return also results in a change to your Ohio return be sure to submit an Ohio amended return as well. Note: Ohio no longer uses a special amended tax return.  Instead, use the normal Ohio IT 1040 return and mark the “Amended” box located on the top of page 1.

Let us know if you have any questions about filing an amended return.

You can contact us in Dayton at 937-436-3133 and in Xenia at 937-372-3504. Or visit our website.

Rick Prewitt – the guy behind TTW

…until next week.